About Marikina City
The Shoe Capital of the Philippines
The Augustinians were the first to arrive at the Marikina valley in 1500, at the spot known as "chorillo" in Barangka. Next came the Jesuits in 1630, in a place now called Jesus dela Peña (Jesus of the Rocks). Here, the Jesuits established a mission and built a chapel.In 1687, this pueblo became a parish known as Mariquina. In 1901, with the coming of the Americans,its name officially became Marikina. The early settlers lived along the riverbanks and nearby fertile farms. With the industry of the natives, combined with the know-how of the early Chinese settlers, the farms began to produce rice and vegetables in great quantities until the valley became part of the country's most prized hacienda.
By the 19th century, Hacienda Marikina had become the biggest in the country. For its size, natural beauty and plentiful harvest, the hacienda was declared a "mayorazgo" (Royal Estate) by the Spanish government. In the next century, to affirm the dignity of labor and enlist the cooperation of the workers, the Jesuits officially named the hacienda in honor of San Isidro labrador, the Patron of farmers.
By the turn of 20th century Marikina had become a town of shoemakers which started in 1887. Honed by years in shoe manufacturing, the natives had developed an industrial work ethic that prepared them for the arrival of heavy industries in the 1950's. With the industrial plants came waves of homelss families who started to occupy every available space. For the next three decades, Marikina would grow helter-skelter, a victim of runaway growth. Not until 1992 would it be able to turn a corner and reserved the trend under new leadership.
On 11 June 1901, Marikina was incorporated in the newly created Province of Rizal by Act. No. 137 of the Philippine Commission. In 1975, when the Metro Manila Commission was created under Presidential Decree No. 824, integrating four cities and 13 towns majority of which were in the province of Rizal, Marikina became part of Metropolitan Manila area.
Marikina soon became a victim of its own growth, creating a slew of problems. One of these was the deterioration of the Marikina River, which resulted from the reckless behavior of factories and squatter colonies that lined the banks.
Recovery and Renewal Marikina jumpstarted its efforts toward recovery and renewal in 1992. Guided by a vision of creating a modern and livable city, it has successfully laid the foundation of a flourishing community.
On December 8, 1996. Marikina was proclaimed a city through Republic Act 8223. Marikina has since transformed itself from a backward community into one that boasts thriving economy and hardworking, tenacious and disciplined citizens.
Today, Marikina is a multi-awarded city, often lauded for its vibrant business life, highly skilled workforce, and a responsive local government that puts a premium on governance, sustainable urban development and public service.
Marikina Historical Development
Marikina’s history provides an interesting glimpse into the events that helped shape its evolution. The Augustinians were the first to arrive at the Marikina Valley in 1500, at the spot known as “Chorillo” in Barangka. Next came the Jesuits in 1630, in a place now called Jesus dela Peña (Jesus of the Rocks). Here, the Jesuits established a mission and built a chapel.
In 1687, this pueblo became a parish known as Mariquina. In1901, with the coming of the Americans, its name officially became Marikina. The early settlers lived along the riverbanks and nearby fertile farms. With the industry of the natives, combined with the know-how of the early Chinese settlers, the farms began to produce rice and vegetables in great quantities until the valley became part of the country’s most prized hacienda. By the 19th century, Hacienda Marikina was owned and administered by the Tuason family and had become the biggest in the Philippines. For its massive size, natural beauty, and plentiful harvest, the hacienda was declared a mayorazgo (royal estate) by the Spanish colonial government.
In 1887, Marikina’s shoemaking industry began through the pioneering efforts of Don Laureano “Kapitan Moy” Guevarra, assisted by Tiburcio Eustaquio, Ambrocio Sta. Ines, and Gervacio Carlos. Kapitan Moy’s worn-out pair of British shoes provided the creative spark: he took the shoes apart, painstakingly studied their components, and then made patterns out of them. After keenly observing the Chinese in Parian, Manila, he fashioned his own pair of shoes. With crude tools, raw materials, and the villagers’ support, Kapitan Moy subsequently mastered the art of shoemaking.
By the turn of the 20th century, Marikina emerged as a town of shoemakers. Honed by years in shoe manufacturing, the natives quickly developed a work ethic that had prepared them for the arrival of heavy industries in the 1950s. With the proliferation of industrial plants came waves of workers who had chosen to stay, rapidly increasing the population. In no time, shoe manufacturing flourished into a multi-million-peso industry, earning for Marikina the moniker, “Shoe Capital of the Philippines”.
On 11 June 1901, Marikina was incorporated in the newly created Province of Rizal by Act No. 137 of the Philippine Commission. In 1975, when the Metro Manila Commission was created under Presidential Decree No. 824, integrating four cities and 13 towns majority of which were in the province of Rizal, Marikina became part of Metropolitan Manila area. Legend has it that the Jesuits found an icon of the Infant Jesus among the boulders and, thus, decided to christen the new mission Jesus dela Peña or maybe because they were members of the “Society of Jesus” which made famous the place called Jesus dela Peña or Jesus of Stone.
When the Jesuits returned in 1689, they protracted the propagation of Christianity in the town, which included “Olandes” which was a part of Kalumpang. They left Jesus dela Peña, but they converted it to a plantation of wheat or trigo obtaining its name “triguhan”. When the church of San Roque was finished, the barrios of Barangka, Tañong and J. dela Peña were termed “Marikina”. The myths and tales of the source of the word “Mariquina” were not yet justified but in the publication of a newspaper “La Illustracion Filipina” on 15 November 1859 and at the dictionary of Buseta published in Madrid in the same year, the name of “Marikina” was mentioned but they never mentioned its meaning.
In view of the non-existence of records or documents on how Mariquina came into being, the following legends were gathered from the elders of the different barrios in Marikina.
From the name of a priests name “Mariquina” One of the builders of the Jesus dela Peña Chapel was a young priest called “Mariquina” who was given the task of baptizing children to Christianity. Because of this very noble job “Mariquina” was named in his honor to bestow upon him glory and praise.
From the word “Marikit-na” During the construction of the chapel of Jesus dela Peña, it was being supervised by the Jesuit priest and the laborers were Filipinos. As expected, language barrier was a problem resulting in the usual misunderstanding. When the chapel was completed and the priest asked what would be called of the structure, one worker answered “Marikit-na po”, thinking that what was being asked was the condition of the chapel. Because the Spaniards knew that the word “Po” is a sign of respect and they were finding it difficult to express the letter “T”, the Marikit-na was believed to be said as “Marikina”.
From a town in Spain In the Province of Nueva Viscaya in Spain, there was a beautiful town called “Mariquina”. This was where Eduardo de Mariquina, a famous musician got his name. The town of Mariquina in Spain is located beside the Charmaga River, which is the origin of the Jesuit Priests who came to the Philippines and established Jesus dela Peña. Because of this, “Mariquina” was used to honor the place where they came from. In 1901, Commissioner de Tavera changed the letter “Q” to a more vernacular “K”.
Based on history and documents in the custody of the municipal government of Marikina, the town was called Marikit-na in 1787 and was later changed to Mariquina. According to Dr. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, the word Mariquina was in recognition of Capt. Berenguer de Mariquina who led the town in 1788.
How Marikina Became A City Mayor Bayani F. Fernando took office in 1992 determined to see Marikina become a city during his watch. It could have been a city in 1994 when it qualified, but no initiative was taken in the House of Representatives. It needed the help of Speaker Jose de Venecia and Congresswoman Carmencita O. Reyes, whose ancestors hailed from Marikina, to get a bill moving in the Lower House of Representatives on second reading in December 1995, after a public hearing was held in Marikina.
The Senate approved the bill unanimously on September 30, 1996. Explaining his vote, Senate President Neptali Gonzales cited the rapid progress of Marikina under Mayor Fernando whose father, Mayor Gil Fernando, was a partymate of Gonzales in the liberal party for many years.
The stage was set for the signing of the bill into law by President Fidel V. Ramos on November 6, 1996 at Malacañang . Some 150 Marikeños, among many guests, heard the President hailed Republic Act 8223 as “recognition of the indefatigable efforts of the people of Marikina towards development led by Mayor Bayani F. Fernando.”
The next step was to ratify the law in a plebiscite to be held within 60 days from its approval. The deadline for this exercise was January 6, 1997. Mayor Fernando requested the Commission on Elections to set an early plebiscite. He wanted it before December 15, 1996 following a notice from the Department of Budget and Management that Marikina should be declared a city before December 15, 1996 or it would have to wait for another year to get a bigger Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) of ₱180 million against ₱70 million. On December 6, 1996, Marikina became a city when Republic Act 8223 was signed by Pres. Fidel V. Ramos and subsequently ratified by the people through a plebiscite converting the same into a highly urbanized city. The ascension of Marikina into a city was considered an offshoot of four years of hard toil leading to the town’s dramatic transformation under the leadership of Mayor Bayani F. Fernando.
On March 13, 1997, Marikina, formally inaugurated a city and, thereby, attained a milestone in its long and colorful history. Today Marikina City is a multi-awarded metropolitan city, often lauded for its vibrant business life, highly skilled workforce, and a responsive local government that puts a premium on governance, sustainable urban development and public service.
Marikina Has Two Districts President Gloria M. Arroyo approved on Dec. 15, 2006 Republic Act No. 9364, an act amending Section 10 and 53 of RA 8223, creating two congressional districts in Marikina City. The move validates Marikina’s status as a formidable city with a high potential for further growth and progress. District I comprise of nine (9) barangays, namely: Barangka, Tañong, Jesus dela Peña, Industrial Valley Complex, Kalumpang, San Roque, Sta. Elena, Sto. Niño and Malanday, while seven (7) barangays comprise the second district, namely, Concepcion I, Concepcion II, Nangka, Parang, Marikina Heights, Fortune, and Tumana.
Marikina, a lush valley bounded by mountain ranges and sliced by a river, is one of the 16 cities and a municipalities comprising the Metro Manila area. It is approximately 21 kilometers away from Manila, and lies within 14° 35', latitude and 14° 41' longitude.
The total land area of Marikina is approximately 2,150 hectares. This represents about 3.42% of the total land area of Metro Manila. At present, the city is composed of 16 barangays.
|1. Sto. Niño||162.56||7.02|
|4. San Roque||115.79||5.00|
|5. Jesus Dela Peña||90.03||3.89|
|8. Industrial Valley Complex||74.89||3.24|
|9. Sta. Elena||51.43||2.22|
|1. Concepcion Uno||226.24||9.78|
|3. Concepcion Dos||194.77||8.42|
|4. Marikina Heights||233.55||10.09|
|Projected Population by Gross Density and Percentage by Area Per Brgy. Marikina City 2021|
|Barangay||Population||Area (Has.)||% by Area||Density|
|4. Jesus Dela Peña||11,030||90.83||3.90||119.73|
|6. San Roque||19,454||115.79||5.00||164.18|
|7. Sta. Elena||7,510||51.43||2.22||142.70|
|8. Sto. Niño||33,345||162.56||7.02||200.46|
|10. Concepcion I||46,143||226.24||9.78||199.31|
|11. Marikina Heights||42,057||233.55||10.9||175.97|
|14. Concepcion II||27,792||194.77||8.42||139.44|
|T O T A L||488,637||2,314.37||100%||206.32|
|Source: Note: Estimated population based on a 25% growth rate|